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The term indicates a book or material from a private library, as opposed to a public library. Evidence of private ownership can be a signature, name, Bookplate, ink stamp, blind emboss, or blind deboss (blindstamp). Although being EX-LIBRIS is typically considered a defect that may reduce the value of a book, prior ownership by a famous person may increase the value. The first example image shows an EX-LIBRIS bookplate on the front fixed endpaper of a Czech book published in Prague, 1911. The second example shows a free endpaper blind embossed from ownership by actress Rosalind Russell.

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